My short answer is Yes and No…
In a small study of two groups of 7 participants, one group exercised for at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity or higher at least 3 times a week. The other group worked out less often and less intense than the first group.
All 14 participants were fed the same high fat 960 calorie breakfast meal. (2220 mg sodium, 48 g of fat, including 16 g saturated fat and 4.5 g trans fat..280mg. cholesterol)
After the high fat meal, they measured obstruction of blood flow in the brachial artery (-the one just above your elbow crease on your arm)..The less active group showed a greater obstruction of blood flow through the artery- it was narrowed, while the more active exercisers had no change.
Both groups experienced an increase in triglycerides (triglycerides are an ester of glycerol and 3 fatty acid groups. High levels of triglycerides indicate an increased risk of stroke.) The more highly active group’s triglycerides rose by 47% but the less active group increased triglycerides by a whopping 184%
While exercise is protective against disease, and people who exercise may be more able to get away with poor food choices, but not on a regular basis.
Johnson, B.D. et al. “Vascular consequences of a High-Fat Meal in physically active and Inactive adults.’ Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism, 36, no3. (2011) 368-375